What Are PCBs?

A printed circuit board or a PCB is a sheet of non-conductive material with embedded copper lines on its surface that serves as electrical tracks for various components to be soldered to. It is used in a lot of myriad devices from simple lighting mechanisms to more complicated control panels for machines and phones. In essence, this invention is what makes our gadgets possible. It also makes it more economical to create these amazing gadgets that makes our lives so much easier.


This board undergoes a rigorous PCB fabrication process to make. Due to its inherent permanence, it needs a detailed planning stage wherein positional reconsideration must be met to make a solid circuit design before printing. First, the circuit itself is designed and its layout is planned to every detail using an electronic design automation tool. After the size and the pattern of the circuit are finalized, the positions of the accompanying components of the board are marked and adjusted as needed. Then the copper tracks were laid down and traced into its non-conductive sheet.

Different Type Of PCB Fabrication Process :

This type of PCB fabrication process produces circuit boards that may be single, double sided or multi-layered.The difference between these three types of PCB is the position of the copper tracks on their surfaces. The single sided and double sided made use of copper tracks on one side or both sides of the laminated board’s surface. The multi-layered type of PCB on the other hand, is vastly more complex than the latter. It consists of inner copper cores or foils sandwiched between sheets of laminated boards, each capable of using different materials according to your needs or preferences.


As you can see, the process of creating a PCB relies heavily on the planning stages because once printed it is virtually impossible to change its design. It is not really an ideal material to work with if you need a more adaptable circuit. If you need circuit boards for prototype making what you need is something that provides a lot of leeway for adjustments.


Maybe you are more suited to use alternatives like the wire wrap method or the point-to-point construction circuit technique. But, what makes PCB ultimately better than these alternatives is that PCB is cheap and takes less time to make compared to the more technical options out there. Because most of the circuit itself is done using specialized software and automated printing processes, it is more economical and faster compared to the more manual process of other techniques.

This kind of PCB fabrication process is efficient and cost-effective.

It makes circuit boards more accessible and it ultimately makes it easy to construct even more gadgets and tools with a lot more functions. This surge of PCB usage is what makes it easier to create a lot of interesting and one of a kind tools and gadgets. In fact because of its accessibility, it has even become a staple in handy resourceful people who create their own tech and tools at home. It also empowers creators to design without needing to be well versed on how to make circuits from scratch.

This kind of mentality helps you focus on what matters to you the most that is managing your business and clients without having to be worried about the hassles of creating your own circuit boards to be used for your products.

So what makes PCB ordered in our company different than others?

For one thing, our PCB fabrication process does not use stencils or screen printing but uses this state-of-the-art precision technique called jetting technology. It dispenses the right amount of copper for each pad. Our PCBs made use of a dual x drive system that boasts a great linear drive motor technology and has speedy electronic component handling capabilities, saving you not only time but money in the process. This is the kind of customizable quality service that you must take advantage of. You should not make do with sub par products and services, try our service for yourself and see the difference.


PCB fabrication process produces circuit boards that may be single, double sided or multi-layered. Here pcbnet.com you can get the information about Printed circuit boards.

www.challengecoins4less.com: Challenge Coins Origins


Being part of a prestigious organization is always your dream. When you were a kid, you always wanted to be a member of a martial art organization in your town or a famous dance group in your school. When you were in college, you dreamt of being a part of the champion basketball team or perhaps adebate society for smart students. After graduation, you were eager to work right away and be part of the corporate world. You only wanted to work with the best company. And when you became a part of a prestigious group or organization, you want others to know that you are a legitimate member of that group. You want something genuine to prove that you are indeed a bona fide member of the group. And if you are looking for a special item, an icon to showcase your membership with a prestigious organization,www.challengecoins4less.com can help you.

A challenge coin is a small coin or medallion that usually bears an organization’s insignia or emblem

Challenge Cion

It is given traditionally to a genuine or outstanding member, but it could also be collected by the members themselves. At www.challengecoins4less.com, we offer you with the best challenge coin creations.Having a challenge coin could be one of the most glamorous and memorable way to show that you are indeed part of an organization.

Before anything else, we want to give you some bits of information about the origin of challenge coins. Although no one is certain how challenge coins began, there are actually several stories told about the history of challenge coins.


During the time of the old Roman empire, the Roman soldiers were rewarded with coins for the battles they’ve won. Those coins have the mark of the army or legion from which they came from. A soldier who comes home victorious from battle receives his usual pay and then, he also gets a coin as an additional reward. It was said that the Roman soldiers value the coins they receive more than the women they have or the wine they drink.

During the First World War, it was told that an American pilot escaped from his supposed executioners in France because of the medallion given to him by his officer. His airplane fell over Germany and he was captured by the German soldiers. They took everything he had except for the medallion that was given to him by his officer. Luckily, the pilot was able to escape when the British Forces bombarded Germany and he was able to go to France. However, he was captured again, this time by the French soldiers and they believed that he was an enemy or spy. So he was sentenced for execution but before it could happen, the pilot presented the medallion given to him by his officer. A French officer recognized it and confirmed that he is not an enemy but an ally. Thus, he was saved from being executed and the French officer gave him a bottle of wine instead.

The tradition of keeping a medallion by the American soldiers was continued after the Second World War

A story says that the tradition began through a challenge that was made by the soldiers stationed in Germany. They followed an old tradition there called “Pfenning checks.” A Pfenning is a German coin that has the smallest value of all German coins during that time. If a Pfenning check was made and somebody did not have it, you have to buy beers for those who have their Pfenning. It evolved then from Pfenning to the coin or medallion given to them by their officers. A challenger would ask to see their medallions and if a challenged soldier could not produce a medallion, the challenged one would have to face the consequence of buying a beer of choice for the soldier who made the challenge and for everyone else who had their medallions. But if the challenged soldier and the rest of the soldiers produce a coin, then the one who made the challenge is required to buy a drink for the challenged soldiers.


There is also another story about an American soldier that was about to go to war together with Philippine guerillas against the Japanese army during the Second World War. As it was told, he carried a Philippine silver coin that had the stamp of the unit insignia on one side. The coin was used by the guerillas to validate the American solder as an ally for their mission against the Japanese soldiers. Also, in 1950 and 1951, during the Korean War period, Colonel William “Buffalo Bill” Quinn gave coins for those who are under his 17th Infantry Battalion. The tradition of giving out coins was also made for the American troops that participated in the Vietnam War.

Now that you know about the origins of challenge coins, we would like to help you and your organization to come up with your own beautiful custom coins. You just need to contact us at www.challengecoins4less.com so we can help you right-away. Just fill out our form for our free quotation. You can also send an email to coins@challengecoins4less.com.

You may also call us at 855-272-8451 without any toll fee at all. Always remember, at www.challengecoins4less.com, you are a valued customer!

The Many Uses of Iron on Patches


Colorful, varied and fun- those are what iron on patches are all about. These versatile patches are more than just embroidered pieces of embellishments. Patches can be word to be used as expressions of art and individuality. That’s why patch makers consider the customer’s intended use in designing and making the patches. All this time, we think patches are only for uniforms. But no! Finished patches can be used in a plethora of creative ways. We’ll enumerate some of them here.

Patches on Bags

Totes and backpacks are made much more interesting with iron on patches. They add a bit of fun and color to plain bags. Children’s bags look cuter when embellished with iron on patches of their favorite cartoon characters. Kids will surely enjoy carrying their patched bags around! Tote bags and backpacks can also be personalized with iron-on letter patches to spell out the owner’s names. Patches with custom designs can also be ironed onto a bag’s pockets and flaps for an interesting touch.

Patches on Casual Clothes


Plain t-shirts easily get an overhaul with iron-on patches. Patches are easy, cheap and unique ways to add added flair to casual shirts. Old shirts especially get a huge benefit with iron on patches. Embroidered and rhinestone patches on these shirts will surely turn heads on the street. Virtually any design is possible; just let the creativity flow! Attaching patches to clothes using an iron is simple and easy enough for anyone to do. No matter how simple they are, patch designs can absolutely take casual t-shirts to a whole new level.

Patches on Jeans

Pachaes on Jeans

Don’t chunk out the old jeans just yet. There’s still a way to turn these pants into something useful and nice. Plain old jeans can get a cool makeover with iron on patches! Jeans with designs never go out of style. Plus, putting ironed patches on them is easy-peasy and fun! Simply iron-on customized patch designs anywhere on the jeans, like we would for regular garments. Let our imagination and creativity roll as we spice up the pants according to our own tastes. Jazzing up those old but usable jeans is just an ironed patch away!

Patches on Hats

Another great item where ironed patches can be used on is the hat. Hats are becoming a popular fashion accessory again. Hats are even considered a necessity in hot and humid areas. It’s easy to customize fabric hats by using iron on patches. Logos, initials, characters – virtually any customized design can quickly be placed on hats by using these versatile patches. For instance, souvenir hats commonly have embroidered patches with the establishment’s logos. Be wary that only hats made of fabric are allowed to use iron on patches.

Patches on Wallets

Patches on Wallets

Lots of fabric wallets and mini coin-purses have various patched designs on them. Dust off the old fabric coin purses at home; it’s easy to place D-I-Y iron on patch designs on them as well! As with the other items on this list, patch designs for wallets range from sparkly rhinestones to company logos and personalized letters. The sky’s the limit! Patched wallets make great company giveaways or gifts to the people dear to us.

Customized Iron on Patches are Everywhere!

Aside from all these stuff enumerated above, iron on patches can be used on handkerchiefs, pillowcases, baby’s clothing, table mantles, jackets and any item made of fabric. Iron-on patches are easy to apply and will not quickly fade once attached to fabric. This makes it a versatile design add-on to any fabric item. Customized patches in lots of designs and colors are available to make simple everyday items more beautiful and nice.

Where to Get Customized Iron on Patches?

Since there are lots of shops offering beautiful customized patches, it’s best to spot a store which lives up to its promise. One such store is Patches 4 Less. They create lovely customized patches according to customer’s needs and specifications. This shop produces high-quality patches that are affordable, beautiful and durable. Ordering patches from them is simple and fast. Grab customized patches from them now and see the big difference!

Boosting Business by Getting a Motivational speaker


When a company experiences a slump, its managers must act quickly to avert further losses. The plan of action must be immediate whether a company experiences a profit dip, break-even point, or negative net income. A decrease in profit or having no income at all will adversely affect a company’s performance. If the decline in profit is not dealt with accordingly, employees will experience low morale. The production quality of a company’s output may also worsen.

Managers should not fret because there are many ways to reverse a decline in profit to elevate their company. To begin with, they should order for the minimization of expenses in all departments. Cutting on unnecessary spending will do wonders for a company.

Managers must also request for a comprehensive review of all financial transactions. They may spot irregularities in audited reports, such as theft and illegal fund transfers. A review of all inventories must also be done to detect pilferage. Quality control must be rectified and strengthened.

A probable reason for the decrease in profit could be the unsatisfactory output of a company:

With stricter implementation of quality control standards, a company’s output may be improved and brought back to its original level. These few steps that do not require a company to shell out money are expected to produce rapid results.

Motivation Speaker

If there are still funds to spare, a company may use these to infuse improvements in its system. They may hire better personnel to replace erring workers. The services of a consultant can also be sought because he may be able to help solve their predicament with his wisdom and expertise. A company can also purchase new equipment to keep up with the changing times and improve production quality. These are just a few ways for a distressed company to bounce back.

The usual steps taken by companies to recover from a financial crisis, however, focus more on things, such as money, production and equipment. Some managers fail to see that the workforce is a vital component of their company. Without people, no one will man the equipment, produce output, and oversee financial transactions, thus, it is important to take into consideration the morale of its employees. Workers whose welfare is taken care of can perform their tasks more efficiently. Boosting the morale of employees will make them produce better results. This will lead to the progression of a company’s performance.

Managers have to be reminded that providing healthcare and giving government:

Mandated bonuses are not enough to boost the morale of employees. Even if a company hands out additional bonuses and incentives, its managers must do more than just rewarding its employees financially. Additional pay surely makes employees happy, but there are also intangible things that can excite employees and enhance their spirits.

A company can do this by securing the services of a motivational speaker. The speaker can hold a talk for a couple of hours, a half-day seminar, a whole-day team building, or a retreat for several days. Having a motivational speaker on board can help a company address the burnout employees experience when they are physically and emotionally drained by work. The speaker can also pave the way for better relationships among quarreling co-workers.


Motivational-speaker-success.com holds talks for companies that wish to educate its employees on aspects, such as leadership, sales management, employee engagement, customer service and communication. If a company wishes to add a topic, it can do so because our motivational talks can be customized. What makes our talks extra special is the combination of professional humor and vital information done by our motivational speaker, Garrison Wynn. We believe that an informative talk must also be animated so that it will be memorable.

Our motivational speaker is a certified crowd drawer as he has professional work experience in the entertainment industry. He provides valuable insights by sharing jokes and anecdotes. Moreover, he has many years of work experience in the business sector and corporate world. This makes him a convincing speaker in corporate gatherings. Because of our speaker’s intensive business background, all our talks are based on massive research. We provide information based on years of research on the correlation of employee opinion and productivity.

By hiring a motivational speaker, employees will be inspired to be better workers. They can work with a renewed confidence in themselves and in their co-workers and managers. They will also be more motivated to help their company recover. This will be beneficial for a slumping company because an improved workforce will surely produce better results.

Different Types of Golf Balls and Their Constructions


There are 3 main types of golf balls on the market and each has its own unique characteristic. In order to gain dominance on the green, you must use the right type of ball for your game. This guide describes the construction of each type to help you decide which one to use.

Two-Piece Balls

This ball type comprises the majority of the golf ball market. It has a solid rubber core enclosed in a urethane or plastic cover. Golf ball manufacturers can modify the performance of the ball by altering the size and compression of the core, as well as the softness of the outer cover. Two-piece golf balls are usually your distance or game improvement balls. Their large core provides incredible velocity when hit by a club face.

These balls are often low spinning, which means they can fly straighter and your unwanted hook spins or slices will not be as evident. Two-piece balls with lower compression work well with men, women and even children with slow swing speeds.
Average Cost: $10 – $15 per dozen

Three-Piece Hybrid Balls

Golf Ball

Hybrid balls feature a solid core encased in a layer of mantle. This 2-piece assembly is further enclosed in a soft urethane rubber or plastic cover. This type of golf ball incorporates the forgiveness of a 2-piece model, with the enhanced performance and increased spin control of a 3-piece construction.

Manufacturers can tweak the core and the thin layer to create a playable, well-performing ball that suits a wide variety of players. Three-piece hybrid balls are quite an innovation.

Average Cost: $25 – $30 per dozen

Four-Piece Performance Balls

Low handicap and professional golfers with higher swing speeds require a ball with lower initial spin and higher iron spin. This is so they can reach longer distances with accuracy. A four-piece golf ball meets both of these requirements with its unique dual core construction.

In a 4-piece design, the 2-piece core is enclosed in a thin layer of mantle and a urethane, dimpled outer covering. The urethane cover and other ball components work together to give four-piece golf balls the drop-and-stop action you typically see on the popular weekend broadcasts.

Average Cost: $40 – $45 per dozen

Other Types of Golf Ball

Besides the 3 basic types of balls described above, many modern versions have appeared in the market today. In an attempt to produce more optimized performance, manufacturers have created modified golf ball versions such as:

The Polara

This type is aimed towards the “slicers.” This ball has a distinct dimple pattern that produces a horizontal spin when hit by a player who often tends to slice. The Polara features shallow dimples located around its center and deeper dimples that are found on each end of the ball.

The shallow dimples produce less lift and the deeper ones work together with the former to produce less drag, thereby creating a lower and straighter trajectory. This ball also has a line across it that faces the goal when being teed up.

Average Cost: Around $30 a dozen

Volvik Crystal

Volvik crystal golf balls are specially designed for the legally blind. These are brightly colored balls that are easy to see in the fairway and off the tee. Other variations feature multiple colors. Volvik crystals come in a range of styles and have lower compression for slower swing speeds.

Average Cost: $14.99 a dozen

The Floater

The floater targets those golfers whose driving ranges have ponds or lakes, or those who always find the watery areas hazards in all occasions. This ball has a low-density, solid core that lets it float in the water, so you will never have a problem about losing a golf ball in the course pond or lake again. However, the floater does not travel as distant as a regular golf ball due to its construction, so you will need to consider several factors before opting for this one.
Average Cost: Around $3 per piece

Golf Equipment from www.rockbottomgolf.com

For apparent reasons, golf balls are a crucial component of the game. It is the one that is supposed to reach the target while holding up to various environmental factors such as the wind and course conditions. As such, you should play with a ball that best suits your condition and can help you achieve the goal with fewer strikes.

If this is the kind of golf ball you’re looking for, then www.rockbottomgolf.com is your best source. With many styles and variations to choose from, you are surely on your way towards improving your skills and dominating the green during every game.

Alternatives to Foreclosure


When people buy a home, they envision owning it for their families and living in it for the rest of their days. However, this may not always be the case. Due to circumstances like the loss of a job (due to economic or medical reasons) and even job transfers and excessive debts, people aren’t always able to sustain their monthly mortgage payments. If this happens continuously, there is only one outcome — the dreaded foreclosure that equates to losing one’s greatest investment.


The word gained notoriety for a good reason — it is when your property is sold forcibly, as the lender’s attempt at recovering the balance of your loan. The proceeds of the selling amount goes to the lender ad to any lien holders first, with you receiving the remainder (if there’s even any left). This is what happens to the typical homeowner in tough times.

However, this does not have to happen to everyone. With a good Long Island foreclosure lawyer by your side, even this scenario can be contested through legal means.

In essence, foreclosure puts into action the right of redemption, which is an equitable right. Thus, in order to keep this right of redemption, the debtor would be able to petition the court for an injunction, effectively stopping the proceedings. If the repossession has been deemed imminent, then the debtor can ask for a temporary restraining order. Both these approaches take considerable legal awareness, and your trusted Long Island foreclosure lawyer will be your best bet. Then again, there is also the possibility of challenging the validity of the debt itself, in an attempt to stop the bank from foreclosing the property. This approach simultaneously sues the bank for damages. Such an approach weighs heavily on the idea that the lender bears the burden of proof, in order to determine that they are in a legal standing to foreclose.

Also, there are other alternatives to foreclosure. Due to collapse of the United States housing bubble and the recent mortgage crisis, a renegotiation trend appeared that is seen to be a better alternative to foreclosure. This renegotiation includes modification of the mortgage loans, making things friendlier for the buyer. In fact, the U.S. Treasury itself has sponsored programs offering incentives to renegotiated mortgages. This includes the Hope Now and the 2009 “Making Home Affordable” initiatives.

The HARP (Home Affordable Refinance Program) also allows homeowners to gain the upper hand in refinancing, if their declined home value renders them unable to obtain traditional refinancing. This makes the avoidance of foreclosure possible even in dire circumstances, but you will need the help and guidance from your trusted Long Island foreclosure lawyer in order to make the most out of it. As a rule, banks can earn more with foreclosures so they will do what they can to push you off the other end.

Having your Long Island foreclosure lawyer by your side is also a good measure against unscrupulous lenders who “dual-track” — those who process a loan modification but still carry on with the foreclosure. Unfortunately, such a practice can mislead many people, and they will be caught off guard when the property is suddenly sold at an auction. Though some states have legislated against this dual-tracking, it has not yet been eliminated in others.

Since the entire process of buying, maintaining, and even defending your home carries many legal repercussions, it is best to get a specialized person that can help you tread these shaky grounds. With you and your family’s security and future on the line along with the property, getting a reliable lawyer should be your top priority.